According to Amartya Sen two rising economic powerhouses, India and China are less than fully equipped in term of health care which is a key attribute of national economic development. Coming out of the US, Europe, Japan and Korea as developed economic powerhouses certify Mr. Sens arguments.
Some statistical data by which we can realize the fact in India and China
Healthcare spending as a % of GDP in India has reduced from 4.3% in 2000 to 4% in 2013. In China has increased from 4.6% in 2000 to 5.6% in 2013. The corresponding global average for healthcare spends as a % of GDP was 8.2% in 2000 and 9.3% in 2013.
Proportion of Government expenditure to private expenditure has marginally improved from 26:74 in 2000 to 32:68 in 2013. In China it was 57:43 which very near to global average 59:41 in 2013.
Out-of-pocket spends in India as a proportion of total healthcare spending continues to remain high at about 85.9% of total healthcare expenditure in 2013. In China also remain high at 76.7% in 2013. The global average has remained steady at 50% during the period from 2000 to 2013.
Per capita spend on healthcare expenditure In India average poorly despite growing from US$ 65 in 2000 to US$ 126 in 2010, in China which was US$ 43 in 2000 increased at US$ 216 in 2010. The global average for per capita spend on healthcare expenditure has significantly increased (in PPP terms) from US$ 564 in 2000 to US$ 1,017 in 2010.
In insurance point of view two countries adopted it as a tool to provide health-care access and mitigate disastrous expenditure. But in real fact India has only 20% penetration of insurance while China has 95%. Each nation has adopted an independent route towards achieving universal health coverage. China Struggles with issues of limited health-insurance benefits and high out-of-pocket expenditure (77.2% in 2010 and 76.7% in 2013).
At the United Nations Sustainable Development Summit on 25 September 2015, world leaders adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which includes a set of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to end poverty, fight inequality and injustice, and tackle climate change by 2030.
One main and ambitious goal is to achieve universal health coverage, including financial risk protection and access to quality essential health-care services for all. For India, achieving universal health coverage is also a national priority. Penetration remains very low, with 5% coverage by private insurance. Two significant sources of health-insurance coverage in India are sponsorship by employers or the government at the federal or state level.
In India Central and State sponsored insurance scheme are very less compared with private sector, its provides for more than 80% of Indias health-care needs on the other hand in China has been modeled as a tool to improve efficiency and control rising costs of government facilities, establishing responsibility.
In Indias insurance has so many variations in coverage but in China primarily dominated by 3 health insurances scheme with very less product variability,
1. New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme
2. Urban Employees Basic Medical Insurance
3. Urban Residents Basic Medical Insurance.
The World Bank
World Health Organization
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)